What is a CAT tool? What is a fuzzy match? The glossary provides an alphabetic list of important concepts related to the translation management with Across.
Key concepts in a nutshell
- 100% match
Search hit in the (crossTank) translation memory with a match rate of 100%. Both the content and the format fully match the segment to be translated. See also fuzzy match.
The process of pairing up sentences derived from existing translations in order to be imported into a translation memory. The original text and the translation are both divided into segments and automatically paired up by the application.
- acronym of Application Program Interface
An interface with which application software communicates and exchanges data with other programs.
- acronym of ARA format
Proprietary file format of Across for exporting and (re-)importing projects.
A unit of thought constituted through abstraction on the basis of properties common to a set of objects. Concepts are not bound to particular languages. They are, however, influenced by the social or cultural background. Concept-oriented information includes definitions, illustrations, and information on a specialized field.
- acronym of Computer Aided Translation
A technology used to support a translator by means of a software application. Classical components of a CAT system are a translation memory, a terminology system, and a suitable editor.
- Client /server technology
Technology with which all users (clients) store their data on a central server, thereby avoiding inconsistencies. The client offers the user desktop or the user interface of the application. The server provides functionality.
- acronym of Control Panel Library
The Windows Control Panel extension or .cpl for short is a file extension under the Microsoft Windows operating system for control panel elements.
- acronym of Client Response Unit
crossWAN data package; the package is generated by an Across Client or offline user after processing crossWAN tasks and sent to the Across Server. The package contains all data created on the Client side during the processing of the tasks, i.e. the translation as well as any crossTank and crossTerm entries.Instead of being exchanged directly, CRUs can also be exchanged between the Across Client and the Server in the form of files on suitable storage media (e.g. on CD or USB stick), by e-mail, or as FTP download and be imported manually by the Across Server (crossWAN classic). See also CWU.
- acronym of Character Separated Values
File format with which the entries within a data set can be separated and saved in columns by means of defined characters (e.g. comma or semicolon). This format is particularly well suited for the simple exchange of (terminology) tables.
- acronym of Client Working Unit
crossWAN data package for processing tasks with crossWAN; the package is generated by the Across Server and sent to an Across Client or offline user (the Across Client downloads it from the Across Server). The package contains all data and information to be made available to the Client for processing the tasks, i.e. the source document as well as any crossTank and crossTerm entries.Instead of being exchanged directly, CWUs can also be exchanged between the Across Server and the Client in the form of files on suitable storage media (e.g. on CD or USB stick), by e-mail, or as FTP download and be imported manually by the Across Client (crossWAN classic). See also CRU.
- Data migration
Transmission of data from one application to another one, for instance, when a new software application is used or an update takes place.
- Dedicated server
A server that is reserved for specific operations. In the case of Across, for example, dedicated servers can be used for crossTerm and crossTank to minimize access times if there are large volumes of data or a large number of users.
- acronym of Dynamic Link Library
In programming, a program library refers to a collection of program procedures for associated tasks. In contrast to programs, libraries are not independent units, but are helper modules that provide services to independent programs.
- Three-word combination
See multiple-word combination.
- acronym of Document Type Definition
Document Type Definition: Defines the structure, the elements and the attributes of XML documents.
Redundancy in the translation memory, i.e. several translations exist for one source segment.
- Editiable fields
In Across, the term "editable fields" refers to all information displayed in the form of green fields in the Source View. They must be inserted in the Target Editor and can subsequently be edited. See also placeables.
Components of HTML, SGML, or XML documents. Distinction is made between external elements and inline elements. External elements are located outside the body text, never within a text line. Usually, they cause a line break. In contrast, inline elements are located within the body text; for example, they may cause a certain word within a string to be displayed in bold type. Usually, elements always consist of a start tag (e.g. <i>) and an end tag (e.g. </i>) as well as the embraced content and any attributes (see XML attribute).
- acronym of Executable Format
The file extension of an executable program file in the MS DOS and Windows operating systems.
See inline objects.
Search criterion (e.g., relation, project, subject) on the basis of which certain entries can be filtered out from a database. Only entries that match the predefined criteria are displayed in the search result.
- Fuzzy match
Search hit in the translation memory (crossTank) with a default match rate of 50-99%. Its content and format do not fully match the segment to be translated. This may be due to different content or formatting. In the latter case, Across applies penalties. The minimum threshold for the fuzzy match can be adapted under >>Tools >>Profile Settings... >>crossDesk >>crossTank. See also 100% match.
- acronym of Grid Response Unit
crossGrid data package; the package is generated by the Trusted Server after processing crossGrid tasks and sent to a Master Server (the Master Server downloads it from the Trusted Server). The package contains all data created on the Trusted Server side during the processing of the tasks, i.e. the translation as well as any crossTank and crossTerm entries.Instead of being exchanged directly, GRUs can also be exchanged between the Trusted Server and the Master Server in the form of files on suitable storage media (e.g. on CD or USB stick), by e-mail, or as FTP download and be imported manually by the Master Client (crossGrid classic). See also GWU.
- acronym of Grid Working Unit
crossGrid data package for processing tasks with crossGrid; the package is generated by a Master Server and sent to a Trusted Server (the Trusted Server downloads it from the Master Server). The package contains all data and information to be made available to the Trusted Server side for processing the tasks, i.e. the source documents as well as any crossTank and crossTerm entries.Instead of being exchanged directly, GWUs can also be exchanged between the Master Server and the Trusted Server in the form of files on suitable storage media (e.g. on CD or USB stick), by e-mail, or as FTP download and be imported manually by the Trusted Client (crossGrid classic). See also CRU.
Term, that is spelt exactly like another term but has a different meaning and origin (designates another concept), for example bow (the front part of a ship) and bow (to bend).
- Inline objects
Generic term in Across for editable fields, placeables, and tags.
- Inline tag
Command for formatting information in a text line of an HTML, SGML or XML document; for example, <i>cat</i>, means that cat is displayed in italics.
- acronym of Internet Protocol
IP addresses permit a logical addressing of computers in IP networks (for example, the Internet). There is at least one unique IP address per network interface, which is usually represented by a series of four numbers separated by a dot, for example, 192.168.0.34.
- No Match
For the current segment, no hits were found in crossTank or the match rate was below the defined threshold.
- Concordance search
Search for translation memory entries containing a certain individual word or a word combination.
- Context match
In addition to the normal matching of a sentence with crossTank with respect to the content and style, this feature also takes the preceding sentence and the subsequent sentence into consideration. Thus, a context match is a match for which not only the properties of a normal 100% match – i.e., 100% correspondence between the content and style of the current sentence and a crossTank hit – but also the context corresponds.
- acronym of Local Area Network
A computer network within a spatially limited area, e.g. in a building or company.
- acronym of Locale Identifier
A locale ID is assigned to each language. For example, German (Germany) has the LCID 1031 and English (USA) the LCID 1033.
A mark within a document that makes it easier to find a certain passage in the text.
- acronym of Language Service Provider
Complete or partial similarity of a segment to be translated with a translation unit that has been stored in the translation memory.
- Match rate
Percentage indicating the extent to which a segment matches a translation unit stored in the translation memory. The system distinguishes 100% matches, fuzzy matches, and no matches. See also Context match.
- Multiple-word combination
Several individual, semantically associated words. Two-word combinations consist of two words (e.g., New Testament), three-word combinations consist of three words (e.g., table of contents).
- ML document
- acronym of Markup Language Document
Documents which are formatted in HTML, SGML or XML.
- Natively supported formats
File formats that are directly supported by a software or which can be processed by it.
- Standard line
Line of text that usually consists of 50-55 characters (with or without spaces). In Germany, counting standard lines is the most common basis for calculating prices.
- acronym of OLE Control eXtension
Special control elements in Microsoft applications that permit the scroll bars to be moved or pane sizes to be adjusted, among other things.
- Partitioning documents
Splitting up a document into different sections, which permits a document to be worked on by several translators simultaneously.
Percentage that is deducted from the match rate due to differences, e.g. in the formatting or attributes (relation, subject, etc.). The penalties can be adapted in the advanced crossTank settings in the profile settings.
In Across, placeables are all information represented in the form of gray fields in the Source View. For example, they are used for cross-references and page numbers. The content of placeables cannot be edited; however, placeables must be inserted in the Target Editor. See also editable fields.
- acronym of Resource Script
Format for the graphical user interface of software, such as dialog boxes, menus, shortcut keys, etc.
- Reference documents
Additional documents for the translator that contain relevant supplementary or background information for the translation.
- Regular expression
A regular expression is a text pattern made up of both normal characters (e.g. the letters from a to z) and special characters, so-called meta-characters. The pattern specifies one or more sequences of characters for which a match has to be found when scanning a text.
- Relay translation
Translation workflow that calls for the source text to first be translated into a third language because no suitable translator is available for the direct translation.Example: A document that needs to be translated from French to Japanese must first be translated from French to English because there is only a translator available to do the translation from English to Japanese.
In Across, a relation is usually a customer, but may also be a partner, a country subsidiary, or a product or product group. It can be used to specify a project, a crossTank entry, or a crossTerm entry.
- acronym of Rich Text Format
Advanced text format whose formatting (font size, color, font) is also retained when the text is exchanged between different word-processing programs.
- Sentence alignment
The sentence alignment is performed e.g. if a paragraph translated in crossDesk is saved to crossTank. The paragraph is split into segments (e.g. sentences), and the associated source and target-language segments are stored as translation units, i.e. crossTank entries.
- Sentence detection
Technology for recognizing sentences within a continuous text using pre-defined rules for sentence, sentence length and/or sentence delimiters.
- Server context
Under employment of crossGrid, designates the data stock of a Master Server or a Trusted Server.
- acronym of Standard Generalized Markup Language
SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) is the "original ancestor" of all markup languages on whose basis other markup languages were developed. For example, HTML was derived from SGML.
Serves the easy connection of Across Clients to the Across Server and the authentication of users against the Server.
A character that is usually not displayed; may be used for separating words. Apart from normal spaces, tabs are also considered white spaces.
Pre-defined words not to be recognized as term candidates (potential terms) during the term extraction (e.g., articles, fillers, conjunctions).
A term, that has the same meaning as another term and describes the same concept.
Character string used by mark-up languages to structure certain parts of a text and to facilitate their automatic processing. The HTML uses tags to mark paragraphs, line breaks, or text formatting. Across endeavors to hide tags as far as possible from the translator.
- acronym of TermBase eXchange
XML-based format for standardized exchange of data from terminology databases.
- acronym of TermBase eXchange Basic
A lighter version of TBX that comprises fewer data categories than the official TBX standard.
- acronym of Translation, Editing and Proofreading
A designation consisting of one or more words. Concepts are linguistically represented by terms. Term-oriented information includes such items as grammatical information, project, or relation.
- Term extraction
Extraction of term candidates from a text in order to set down the target-language equivalents of the technical terms to prepare for the translation of the text.
The complete sum of concepts and their terms for one special field.
- acronym of Translation Memory
Database in which translation units (pairs) are stored. Each source-language segment is assigned to the corresponding target-language segment.
- acronym of Translation Memory eXchange
XML-based format for the standardized exchange of translation memory data.
An international standard which aims to determine a universal code for each graphical character or element of all known writing cultures and character systems that can be displayed on a computer. This guarantees that Latin, Cyrillic, and Asian alphabets can all be displayed correctly.
- acronym of Uniform Resource Locator
The Internet address of a web resource.
The automatic comparison of a new text to be translated with the translation units stored in the translation memory and the insertion of the matches into the target text.
Preview function that enables the user to generate a preview for both the source and target texts regardless of both the original format and the way the original document is displayed in the editor.
- acronym of Virtual Private Network
Computer network that uses a public network (for example, the Internet) to transport private data. An encrypted connection is established between the connected computers in order to guarantee a secure data exchange.
- acronym of Wide Area Network
A network that usually connects several LANs across large distances, for instance, a network that connects several branches of a company in a country.
Automatic assistant in a software that guides the user through the individual steps required to execute certain program operations.
- acronym of What You See Is What You Get
While being processed, a document looks exactly the same on the computer screen as it does when displayed via another device, e.g. a printer.
- acronym of Extensible Markup Language
Standardized markup language used in content management systems, databases, etc. XML is also often used as an exchange format between various applications.
- XML attribute
- acronym of Extensible Markup Language attribute
In XML, a designation that represents a combination of a name and value and is used to provide additional information about an XML element, for example, <FONT SIZE=2>. In this case, FONT is an element and SIZE=2 is an attribute.
- XML element
- acronym of Extensible Markup Language element
Information unit within an XML document consisting of a start tag, an end tag, the content between the tags, and any XML attributes.
- acronym of XML Path Language
XPath is a language used to address parts of an ML (Markup Language) document. It can be used to address specific nodes of these documents.
- acronym of eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation
XSLTs enable the conversion of XML documents to other XML structures or output formats. The XSLTs define how the conversion is to be performed. In Across, XSLTs can be used for the customization of reports.
- Translation unit
A translation unit consists of a source segment and the corresponding associated target segment that have been saved as equivalents in a database.
- Two-word combination
See multiple-word combination.
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